Ludwig Janus, M.D. is a lecturer and psychoanalysis instructor at the Psychoanalytic Training Institute in Heidelberg, Germany. He is past-president of the International Society for Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Medicine (ISPPM), the past-president of the German Society for Psychohistory and Political Psychology (GPPP) and current co-editor of the International Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology. He has published numerous articles and books on prenatal and perinatal psychology and on psychohistory, including The Enduring Effects of Prenatal Experience: Echoes from the Womb (www.Ludwig-Janus.de). His research examines how prenatal stress can have long-term effects and how successful treatment may depend significantly on the processing of these experiences. Ludwig Janus and Hungarian psychoanalyst Jenö Raffai developed the Prenatal Bonding (BA) method to support mothers in connecting with their unborn child.